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Water is made up of polar molecules. These are water molecules with an uneven distribution of electrons. One end of the molecule has a slightly higher positive charge than the other, and this results in a net negative charge on the whole molecule. This is what makes it soluble in things like oil and waxes that have a more even distribution of electrons. The hydrocarbons found in gasoline are insoluble because they lack this polarity; there’s no difference between one end of any given molecule to another.
This is why gasoline stays in a liquid form, even when it’s cold. It takes much more energy to break the hydrogen bonds between molecules than to just let them remain grouped together in their natural state.
Hydrocarbons are insoluble in water because they do not dissolve into the solution. This is because hydrocarbons consist of a long chain of carbon molecules with hydrogen atoms attached to some of them. The solubility test will show that these chains are very rigid and cannot be able to break apart from each other, even if enough energy (heat) was applied to cause this reaction. In addition, hydrophobic properties also contribute to why hydrocarbon compounds have low solubility rates; in most instances the hydrogen and carbon bonds on adjacent carbons prefer non-polar interactions instead of polar ones like those found between water molecules.
The solubility rate usually depends on whether or not it can form salts with an – The surface tension of water is a major factor for the solubility of hydrocarbons. – In order to be soluble in a liquid, molecules must have low cohesive forces and high polarizability. – The long hydrocarbon chains repel each other due to their electron density distribution on different carbons which means they are not very attracted to one another; therefore, these large nonpolar groups do not dissolve well in water because it has no charge attraction. Hydrocarbons also lack hydrogen bonding sites which prevents them from having any association with neighboring waters. – These two properties mean that there is little interaction between the hydrocarbon chain and its surrounding environment as opposed to short chain compounds such as methan